To accomplish a smooth and safe approach and landing, every approach phase must
be planned and performed with precision. A well planned and performed approach
is not only important for the approach itself, but also for getting the
airplane safely to a full stop after landing. Especially when approaching short
runways or bad weather conditions.
If the approach is not stabilized when passing latest 500 ft RH (see stabilized approach further down), or the approach gets unstable in an instrument approach close to minima a go around have to be carried out.
If any malfunction of the systems required for a CAT III, including autopilot disconnect, a go around must be executed.
ManeuveringBelow 1500 ft, RH, one hand shalll be placed on the yoke, one hand on the throttles and the feet on the rudder pedals, prepared to take over in case of A/P disconnect. When flying an ILS approach in minimum conditions it is recommended to have the autopilot engaged until minimum height as long as centered to the runway centerline. For CATIII operations, autoland is mandatory.
Flap settingsNormal flap setting for an intermediate approach is 10 - 15 degrees.
Flaps 25-40 are for landings. Landing flap setting is depending on traffic situation, noise requirements, stopping requitements, etc. Normally a landing is carried out with fully extended flaps, but in single engine operations it's normal to land with flaps setting less than full, i.e. 25-30 degrees.
SpeedsPattern speed Vp is the minimum maneuvering speed for existing configuration (flap/slat) until stabilized on final approach with landing flap configuration. If landing flap configuration is set before stabilized on runway centerline in a circling approach or visual approach, limit bank angle to maximum 30 degrees and add 15 kts above reference speed or Vp speed.
The airspeed bug shall be set to corrected Vref. Final approach speed is taken from Vref by adding a certain speed based on reported wind. The additional speed from Vref shall not be less than 5 kts and not more than 20 kts. Corrected final approach speed shall be maintained until initiation of flare phase.
When adding additional speed to corrected final approach speed required extra landing distance must be considered.
Additional speed to corrected final approach speed consists of the highest of:
- 5 kts
- the total gust value above the steady wind plus
- half the steady wind above 20 kts.
When executing an autoland minimum final approach speed must always meet Vref + 5 kts or in gusty situation, more than 5 kts increase is necessary.
Automatic ground spoilersSpoilers shall be armed as soon as gear is extended, normally above 1000 ft RH. It is not recommended to arm spoilers below 500 ft RH, instead consider a go-around or landing without auto spoilers.
NavigationLatest from final approach fix, FAF, pilots shall be flying with their Navigations display, ND, set to ARC or ROSE mode. MAP may be used on a go-around when a safe climb is established with A/P engaged in NAV mode.
Stabilized approachStabilized approach is a check on final approach where some parameters has to be fulfilled to be able to continue the approach.
An approach is considered stabilized when below parameters in the table below are met:
||Precision Approach||Maximum deviation from localizer and glidepath one dot|
|Visual approach||Along the desired flightpath. Wings must be level at or before 300 ft RH|
|Non-precision and circling approach||Along the desired flightpath. Wings must be level at or before 300 ft RH|
||.||Maximum deviation plus 20 kts and minus 5 kts from corrected final approach speed|
|Rate of descend||.||Maximum 1500 ft/min|
|Power setting||.||Throttles at minimum LOW LIM position|