Flaps are not required for take-off on VFR flights, but it is not allowed to take-off without flaps on other flights. If the flap is open at speeds above 240 kts, a penalty will be charged.
As long as the limit values written on the QRHs (Quick Reference Handbook) of the aircraft are abided, no penalty will be charged, but it is recommended not to approach the far end of these limits. For example, the maximum speed at which the B747 can flap 1 degree is 280 kts.
However, it is always recommended to leave a margin of safety of 6–7 kts in case the minor values of the software do not match the FDR values. If the flaps are still not retracted when the engines are turned off after landing, a penalty will be charged.